• The Supreme Court has orifinal, appellate and advisory jurisdictions
  • The Supreme Court consists of 31 Judges – 1 Chief Justice and 30 other Justices
  • A small Bench, with two to three Justices, is called a Division Bench. A large Bench, with five or more Justices, is called a Constitutional Bench

Tenure and Qualifications

  • Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President and retire at the age of 65. The qualifications are (a) must be a citizen of India; (b) a judge of a High Court for at least 5 years; (c) an advocate of a HIgh Court for at least 10 years
  • In case of any vacancy in the office of the CJI, the President appoints an Acting Chief Justice from amongest the Judges of the court to function as the Chief Justice

Independence of Judges

It is mentioned in Article 125. The sallaries and allowances of judges are charged from the consolidated fund of India. Present salary of CJI is 1,00,000 INR and other judges are 90,000 INR

Removal of Judges

Judges can be removed only on the grounds or proven misbehaviour or incapacity. Judges can be removed only by a resolution of both Houses of Parliament supported by a majority of total membership of both the Houses and 2/3 of members present and voting


It is mentioned in Article 131

  • Original Jurisdiction
  • Appellate Jurisdiction
  • Advisory Jurisdiction

Important Facts about Supreme Court

  • The first Chief Justice of India was HJ Kania and the present chief justice of India is SH Kapadia
  • The shortest tenure so far is of K.N. Singh
  • The longest tenure so far is of YV Chandrachud
  • The first woman judge of the Supreme Court was Justice Fatima Beebi in 1987 and the second woman justice was Gyan Sudha Mishra